ANP 203: INTRODUCTION TO LIVESTOCK SCIENCES

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The place of animals in agriculture. Origin, domestication and breeds of farm animals (cattle, sheep and goat) and non ruminants (swine ,poultry and rabbit). Problems of livestock production in Nigeria. Introductory ruminant production.

Introduction to Livestock Sciences

Introduction: a document or course of study that gives somebody basic facts or skills in a field

Livestock: any domesticated animals( cattle ,goats, sheep, pigs, poultry and rabbits ) raised in an agricultural setting in order to produce labor and/or agricultural commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

Agriculture: The science and art of cultivating plants, animals, or other organisms in order to produce any of a variety of products that can be used by humans, most commonly food, fibers, fuels, and raw materials.

Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use and values.

Sciences: the study of the physical and natural world and phenomena, especially by using systematic observation and experiment

FARM: An area of land devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food or other crops.

THE PLACE OF ANIMALS IN AGRICULTURE (AS PRODUCT AND IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION)

AS AGRICUTURAL PRODUCT IN AGRICULTURA LPRODUCTION ANIMALS:

ANIMAL IS Any living organism that is distinguished from plants by independent movement and responsive sense organs

Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use AND VALUES.

Animal science (also bioscience)is described as “studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind”. It can also be described as the production and management of farm animals.

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fiber, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.

AS AGRICUTURAL PRODUCT

FOOD

Meat:-

Milk:-

Eggs:-

Fat:-

Edibleslaughterby-products:Fat:Blood

BodyCoverings wool:Leather:pelts:hides:Hair:fur:feathers:-

INAGRICULTURALPRODUCTION

Work

Draft:-

Transportation:labor:-:-

BodyWastes

Fuel:-

Constructionmaterial:Fertilizer:Animalfeed:OtherUses

Income

Religionandotherculturalneeds

Storageofcapital

Slaughterby-products

Storageoffood

Recreationandsport

Biomedicalresearchmodels Pestandweedcontrol

Contributionstotheeconomy

Companionshipandservice

Bufferforfluctuatinggrainsupplies

Petfoodsandtreats

Soilfertilityenhancement

Conservation Prestige beefby-productsusedin candy, shampoo, cosmetics, insulin and inhalers.

ORIGIN,DOMESTICATIONANDBREEDSOFFARMANIMALS(CATTLE,SHEEPANDGOAT)ANDNON RUMINANTS(SWINE,POULTRYANDRABBIT).

Animalsarecategorizedintoruminantsandnon-ruminantsbasedonsomeanatomicalandphysiological differences.

RUMINANTANIMALS:aremammalsthatbelongtotheorderArtiodactyla.Theyareanimalswitha complexstomachunlikethenon-ruminantsthathavesimplestomach.Theyeatanddigestforagesorplant basedfeedbyswallowingitfirstandallowingittogetmoistenedintherumenwhichisthefirst compartmentofthecomplexstomach.Theswallowedfoodislaterregurgitatedbytheanimalandre-chewed tobreakdowntheplantmaterialsfordigestion.Thisprocessiscalledruminationorchewingthecud.The cudisasemi-solidandsemi-degradeddigestausuallyinabolusformwhichisregurgitatedfromthe reticulorumenoftheanimal.Examplesofruminantanimalsarecattle,sheep,goats,camel,waterbuffalo, giraffes,antelopestomentionbutafew.

CATTLE

Scientificclassification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bos

Species:B. tauruss Binomialname

Bostaurus

Linnaeus, 1758

Species:B.taurus

TERMINOLOGIES

•Bull–uncastrated male used for reproduction

•Steer–castrated male used for meat production

•Heifer–female that has not had offspring (baby). (Usually less than 18-24 months of age)

•Cow–female beef/dairy animal that has had a calf.

•Calf–newborn/young animal either male or female.

•Calving–the act of parturition in cattle.

•Beef-type of meat from cattle

ORIGIN:

Cattlewereoriginallyidentifiedasthreeseparatespecies: Bostaurus,the Europeanor”taurine” cattle (includingsimilartypesfromAfricaandAsia); Bosindicus,the Indicineor”zebu”;andtheextinct Bos

primigenius,the aurochs.Theaurochsisancestraltobothzebuandtaurinecattle. Thesehavebeen reclassifiedasonespecies, Bostaurus,withthreesubspecies

DOMESTICATION:

Cattleoccupyauniquerolein humanhistory,havingbeendomesticatedsinceatleastthe early neolithic age.Archaeozoologicalandgeneticdataindicatethatcattlewerefirstdomesticatedfrom wild aurochs (Bosprimigenius)approximately10,500yearsago.Thereweretwomajorareasof domestication:oneinthe NearEast (specifically centralAnatolia,the Levant and WesternIran),givingrise tothetaurineline,andasecondintheareathatisnowPakistan,resultingintheindicineline. Modern mitochondrialDNAvariationindicatesthetaurinelinemayhavearisenfromasfewas80 aurochs tamedin theupperreachesof Mesopotamia nearthevillagesof ÇayönüTepesi inwhatisnowsoutheasternTurkey and Dja’deel-Mughara inwhatisnownorthern Iraq.

AlthoughEuropeancattlearelargelydescendedfromthetaurinelineage,geneflowfromAfricancattle (partiallyofindicineorigin)contributedsubstantialgenomiccomponentstobothsouthernEuropeancattle breedsandtheirNewWorlddescendants. Astudyon134breedsshowedthatmoderntaurinecattle originatedfromAfrica,Asia,NorthandSouthAmerica,Australia,andEurope. Someresearchershave suggestedthatAfricantaurinecattlearederivedfromathirdindependentdomesticationfromNorthAfrican aurochsen.

BREEDS

NIGERIANBREEDS

WhiteFulani(Bunaji),RedBororo(Rahaji),,SokotoGudaliBokoloji,AdamawaGudali,,Wadara,Azawak, Muturu,Keteku,N’dama,Kuri.

Beefcattle are cattle raisedfor meat production(asdistinguishedfrom dairycattle,usedformilkproduction). Themeatofmatureoralmostmaturecattleismostlyknownas beef.Inbeefproductiontherearethree mainstages: cow-calfoperations, backgrounding,and feedlot operations.Theproductioncycleoftheanimals startatcow-calfoperations;thisoperationisdesignedspecificallytobreedcowsfortheiroffspring.From herethecalvesarebackgroundedfora feedlot.Animalsgrownspecificallyforthefeedlotareknown as feedercattle,thegoaloftheseanimalsisfattening.

AberdeenAngusfromScotland

BeefalofromUnitedStates

TabapuanfromBrazil

BonsmarafromSouthAfrica

BrahmanfromIndia

A dairy isa businessenterprise establishedfortheharvestingorprocessing(orboth)ofanimal milk –mostly from cows or buffaloes,butalsofrom goats, sheep, horses,or camels –forhumanconsumption.Adairyis typicallylocatedonadedicated dairyfarm orinasectionofamulti-purposefarm(mixedfarm)thatis concernedwiththeharvestingofmilk

.RandallfromUnitedStates

GirolandoFromBrazil AyrshireFromScotland sahiwalfromIndia

,AustralianMilkingZebufromAustralia

GOATS

Subfamily: Caprinae

Genus: Capra

Species: C. aegagrus

Subspecies: C. a.hircus

Trinomialname Capraaegagrushircus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms

Caprahircus Linnaeus, 1758

•Buck/Billy–uncastratedmalegoat.

•Wether–castratedmalegoat.

•Nannyfemalethathasgivenbirth.

•Doe–femalegoat.

•Kid–younggoat.

•Kidding–actofparturitioningoats.

•Goat/chevon/Cabritto-themeatofgoats.

ORIGIN: istheprocessbywhich domesticgoats cametoexistthrough evolutionbynaturalselection. Wild goats wereoneofthefirstspecies domesticated by modernhumans,withthedateofdomestication generallyconsideredtobe8,000BCE.

DOMESTICATION

Althoughestimatesvaryitisgenerallyheldthatgoatswerefirstdomesticatedapproximately 9,500–9,900yearsago. Thisoccurredinsoutheastern Anatolia,althoughseparateinstancesof domesticationhappenedinIranapproximately6,500yearsagoandineasternTurkey2,500yearsago.The majorityofdomesticatedgoatstodayaredescendedfromthelattertwocasesandnotfromthefirst. Other evidencefordomesticationexistsin WesternAsia,datedapproximately8,000yearsago.

Breedsaregenerallyclassifiedbasedontheirprimaryuse,thoughthereareseveralbreedswhichare considereddual-ormulti-purposegoats,sothereissomecrossoverbetweenlists.

Nigerianbreeds

SahelBreedofGoat,

MaradiorRedSokoto,

WestAfricanDwarfGoats

Foreignbreeds

SardafromSardinia,

RovefromFrance

AgewfromEthiopia

ZhongweifromChina

KinderfromUnitedStates

SHEEP

Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Ovis
Species: O. aries

Binomialname

Ovisaries

Linnaeus, 1758

Synonyms

Ovisguineensis Linnaeus, 1758

Ram–uncastratedmaleusedforreproduction.

•Wether–castratedmalesheep.

•Ewe–femalesheep.

•Lamb–youngsheep,alsonameofmeatforyoungsheep

•Lambing–actofparturitioninsheep.

•Mutton-nameformeatfromoldersheep.

HISTORY

Theexactlineofdescentbetweendomesticsheepandtheirwildancestorsisunclear. Themostcommon hypothesisstatesthat Ovisaries isdescendedfromtheAsiatic(O.gmelini)speciesof mouflon. Sheepwere amongthefirstanimalstobedomesticatedbyhumankind(althoughthedomesticationofdogsmayhave takenplacemorethan20,000yearsearlier);

DOMESTICATION

Thedomesticationdateisestimatedtofallbetween11,000and9,000B.Cin MesopotamiaSheeparemost

likelydescendedfromthewild mouflon ofEuropeandAsia,withIranbeingageographicenvelopeofthe domesticationcenter. Oneoftheearliestanimalstobedomesticatedfor agricultural purposes,sheepare raisedfor fleeces,meat(lamb,hoggetormutton)and milk WestAfricanDwarfSheep,UdaorFulani,Yankasa,Balami

Thereareanumberofwaystoclassifysheep.Themostcommonlyusedclassificationisbytypeofwool Thewooltypeclassificationsare:

(1)finewoolexampleSpanishMerino.fromSpain

(2)mediumwoolexampleFinnishLandracefromFinland

(3)longwoolexampleLincolnfromEngland

(4)crossbredwoolexampleColumbiafromColumbia

(5)carpetwoolexampleBlack-facedHighlandfromUSA

(6)fursheepexampleKarakulfromUSA

(7)hairsheepexampleBarbadosBlackbellyfromTropics

 

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